A Historical Glimpse

A Historical Glimpse

The first known hominid inhabitant of Indonesia was the so-called "Java Man", or Homo erectus, who lived here half a million years ago. Some 60,000 years ago, the ancestors of the present-day Papuans move eastward through these islands, eventually reaching New Guinea and Australia some 30-40,000 years ago. Much later, in about the fourth millennium B.C., they were followed by the ancestors of the modern-day Malays, Javanese and other Malayo-Polynesian groups who now make up the bulk of Indonesia's population.

Trade contracts with India, China and the mainland of Southeast Asia brought outside cultural and religious influences to Indonesia. One of the first Indianized empires, known to us now as Sriwijaya, was located on the coast of Sumatra around the strategic straits of Malacca, serving as the hub of a trading network that reached to many parts of the archipelago more than a thousand years ago.

On neighboring Java, large kingdoms of the interior of the island erected scores of exquisite of religious monuments, such as Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. The last and most powerful of these early Hindu-Javanese kingdoms, the 14th century Majapahit Empire, once controlled and influenced much of what is now known as Indonesia, maintaining contacts with trading outposts as far away as the west coast of Papua New Guinea.

Indian Muslim traders began spreading Islam in Indonesia in the eighth and ninth centuries. By the time Marco Polo visited North Sumatra at the end of the 13th century, the first Islamic states were already established there. Soon afterwards, rulers on Java's north coast adopted the new creed and conquered the Hindu-based Majapahit Empire in the Javanese hinterland. The faith gradually spread throughout archipelago, and Indonesia is today the world's largest Islamic nation.

Indonesia's abundant spices first brought Portuguese merchants to the key trading port of Malacca in 1511. Prized for their flavor, spices such as cloves, nutmeg and mace were also believed to cure everything from the plague to venereal disease, and were literally worth their weight in gold. The Dutch eventually wrested control of the spice trade from Portuguese, and the tenacious Dutch East India Company (known by initials VOC) established a spice monopoly which lasted well into the 18th century. During the 19th century, the Dutch began sugar and coffee cultivation on Java, which was soon providing three-fourths of the world supply of coffee.

By the turn of the 20th century, nationalist stirring, brought about by nearly three centuries of oppressive colonial rule, began to challenge the Dutch presence in Indonesia. A four-year guerilla war led by nationalists against the Dutch on Java after World War II, along with successful diplomatic maneuverings abroad, helped bring about independence. The Republic of Indonesia, officially proclaimed on August 17th, 1945, gained sovereignty four years later.

During the first two decades of independence, the republic was dominated by the charismatic figure of Sukarno, one of the early nationalists who had been imprisoned by the Dutch. General (ret.) Soeharto eased Sukarno from power in 1967. Indonesia's economy was sustained throughout the 1970's, almost exclusively by oil export.

The Asian financial crisis, which broke out in mid-1997, paralyzed the Indonesian economy with the rupiah losing 80% of its value against the US dollar at the peak of the turmoil.

On May 21, 1998, Soeharto resigned after 32 years in power and was replaced by B.J. Habibie following bloody violence and riots. Indonesia held its first democratic election in October 1999, which put Abdurrahman 'Gus Dur' Wahid in the role of president.

The Legend of Mount Tangkuban Perahu

In the days of yore, in Tatar Parahyangan, established an empire that Masyur. there was a king who likes to sport hunting of animals, which always accompanied by a faithful dog, named "Tumang". 

At one point the King hunting deer, but had a day the results are less encouraging.Animals hunted in the forests disappeared as if swallowed by the earth. Amid the disappointment did not get a prey animal, the King startled to turn a dog loyal "Tumang" who finds a baby girl lying among the grass hedge. What a joy the King, when the discovery of a baby girl who was flawless in image, considering that the King has long craved a daughter, but has not been blessed with children. The baby girl was named Princess Dayangsumbi.

Once daughter Dayngsumbi pretty handsome as an adult spoken for a man, who later endowed a boy named Sangkuriang which also will have a penchant for hunting as well as the King. But unfortunately my husband did not live long Dayangsumbi.

One time, a very young Sangkuriang young, entered the hunt accompanied the King's pet dog who is also his mother's favorite, namely Tumang. But the day is not good cause does not obtain the results of the hunting game. Because Sangkuriang has promised to dedicate deer liver to his mother, while deer hunting does not gotten, then kill the Tumang Sangkuriang risked his mother's favorite dog and also the King to take his heart, which was dedicated to his mother.

Mount Hill Tunggul

When Dayangsumbi eventually learned that reindeer liver presented no other is his son's heart "the Tumang" her beloved dog, then became angry Dayangsumbi.Encouraged by anger, accidentally, he beat his son's head with a scoop of rice that is being held, to cause wounds that scar. Sangkuriang effort to encouraging mothers feel in vain, and felt his actions were innocent. He thought no deer liver, dog liver also be, by not thinking about the loyalty Tumang who has devoted his life to serve the employer. Sangkuriang had run away leaving the kingdom, then disappeared without a word. 

Mount Burangrang

After the incident Dayangsumbi feel very sorry, every day he always prayed and pleaded with Hyang Tunggal, so he can be reunited with his son. Later this petition Fulfilled, and the generosity of the Hyang Tunggal step that the Dayangsumbi gifted youth. Syahdan Sangkuriang that continues to wander, he grew into a burly young man, very powerful especially after he had conquered the demon that magic again, that Guriang Seven. 

In a time travels, Sangkuriang without realizing he returned to the kingdom where it originated. And he brings alive the story line with a daughter who was flawless in a charming beautiful nan, who is the daughter Dayangsumbi no other. Sangkuriang fell in love with the daughter, so too will be fascinated Dayangsumbi Sangkuriang gallantry and good looks, then both are intertwined relationship. Sangkuriang or Dayangsumbi time did not know that in fact both the mother and child. Sangkuriang Dayangsumbi eventually apply to become his wife spoken. 
Yet again the story line alive again opened the curtain closed, Dayangsumbi know that it is Sangkuriang young son, when he saw the scar Sangkuriang pat on the head, when he corrected her future husband's headband. 

After feeling confident Sangkuriang bring his son, Dayangsumbi trying to thwart the marriage with his son. To marry her, Dayangsumbi proposed two conditions to be met by the deadline Sangkuriang before dawn. The first condition, Sangkuriang should be able to make a big boat. The second condition, Sangkuriang should be able to create a lake to be used sailing boat. 
Sangkuriang undertakes these requirements, he worked overtime assisted by stealth wadiabalad Guriang Seven leaders to realize the request. Large wooden timber for boat and stem the Citarum river, he got from the forest on a mountain which, according to legend later given the name Mount Hill Tunggul. The twigs and leaves from trees that used the wood, he collected on a hill called Mount Burangrang. 

Citarum River

Meanwhile Dayangsumbi-Hyang Tunggal was begging her to help him, frustrate the purpose Sangkuriang to marry him. Sang Hyang Tunggal Dayangsumbi granted the request, before the job is complete Sangkuriang, ayamp crowing and dawn ... ....Sangkuriang anger, knowing he failed to qualify, he kicked the boat that is being made. The boat eventually fell facedown, and according to legend will be Tangkuban Mt, while the flow of Citarum River is dammed to form lakes gradually Bandung.

History of Java Island

History of Java Island

History of Java Island - The Javanese are mostly descended from migrants who settled the island in waves from about 4000 BC. Sawah - or wet rice - agriculture was developed gradually from 2000 BC, and trade with South India began as early as the 3rd century AD. It's believed that this contact led to the adoption of Hinduism in coastal kingdoms, while Southeast Asian Buddhism was also an influence and developed side by side with Hinduism, along with older beliefs.

In 732 AD the Hindu King Sanjaya founded the kingdom of Mataram, Java's first major political entity, which controlled much of central Java and built the Borobudur temple complex. By the 10th century, King Sendok's East Javanese kingdom was dominant; it was later extended by Airlangga and split into two, the eastern Janggara and the western Kediri, after his death.

Mongols invaded Java in 1292, bringing to the throne a new king, Wijaya, and a new kingdom, the Majapahit Empire, which would become the most powerful and famous of Javanese kingdoms until it fell in 1400. By which time Islam was making serious inroads, especially in coastal ports. Coinciding with Islam's rise was the arrival of the Portuguese in 1511, soon followed by the Spanish, British and Dutch.

In the course of the 17th century, the Dutch became increasingly militaristic and played their rivals off one another. By the early 19th century the Dutch had extended their influence over the sultanates of the interior and claimed Java as Dutch territory.

During the Second World War, in 1942, the island came under the control of Japanese. When the Japanese left the island in 1945, Sukarno proclaimed independence but the Dutch returned and an armed struggle ensued. Ultimately, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949.
Culture & Religion of Indonesia

Culture & Religion of Indonesia

Culture of IndonesiaCulture & Religion of Indonesia - The present day culture of Indonesia is an outcome of the interplay of age-old- traditions from the time of early migrants and the Western thought brought by Portuguese traders and Dutch colonists. The basic principles, which guide life include the concepts of mutual assistance or "gotong royong" and consultations or "musyawarah" to arrive at a consensus or "mufakat". Derived from rural life, this system is still very much in use in community life throughout the country. Though the legal system is based on the Old Dutch penal code, social life as well as the rites of passage is founded on customary or "adat" law, which differs from area to area. ''Adat'' law has been instrumental in maintaining gender equality in Indonesia.

Indonesian art forms are greatly influenced by religion. The famous dance dramas of Java and Bali are derived from Hindu mythology and often feature fragments from the Hindu epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata.

The crafts of Indonesia vary in both medium and art form. As a whole the people are artistic by nature and express themselves on canvas, wood, metals, clay and stone. The batik process of waxing and dyeing originated in Java centuries ago and classic designs have been modified with modern trends in both pattern and technology. There are several centres of Batik in Java, the major ones being Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Pekalongan and Cirebon.

Indonesia is rich in handicrafts. Various forms of handicrafts practiced are: woodcarvings for ornamentation and furniture, silverwork and engraving from Yogyakarta and Sumatra; filgree from South Sulawesi and Bali with different styles of clay, sandstone and wood sculptures. These are but a few of the handicrafts found in Indonesia.

Religion in Indonesia: The majority (about 88%) of the population follows Islam. In fact Indonesia is the nation with largest Muslim population. However, freedom of religion is provided by the Indonesian Constitution, which is defined in the First Principle of the State Philosophy' "Pancasila", which upholds a "Belief in One Supreme God". Others religions followed in Indonesia are Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism.
The History of Bugis Sailors of Indonesia

The History of Bugis Sailors of Indonesia

Since long before European explorers arrived in the Indonesian Archipelago in search of the riches of spice, the Bugis people had gained the position as masters of the seas. From the small village of Bira, on the island of Celebes, today known as Sulawesi, the hardy Bugis sailors constructed and controlled fleets of sailing ships to support the spice and cargo trade that thrived in these islands thousands of years before the Europeans ever arrived.
With the support and friendship of the Macassar traders in the Port of Ujung Pandang, the Bugis sailors carried spice and cargo to and from the 13,000 islands of the archipelago, to the major trading centers where their cargo was unloaded and traded to Chinese and Arab merchants, who then started their treks to the markets of Europe and the ancient Chinese dynasties.
The Bugis Schooners, crafted of the strong timbers of the islands, were capable of coping with the heavy seas of the region. Under the guidance of their masters, they earned a well deserved reputation of fine seaworthiness and controlled the major trade routes of most Asian waters.
With the arrival the Dutch, Portuguese and English in the Spice Islands, an alliance with the Bugis and Macassar people was a key strategic objective to assist in the colonization of Indonesia. The ultimate abuse of these alliances by the Dutch, was to label the Bugis people as Pirates. The basis of this label was the fierce rejection of colonization by the Bugis Sultans.
Today, these proud Bugis people still build the same massive sailing schooners and carry a great part of Indonesia's cargo to the same colorful ports across the archipelago. The Traditional Fleet is made up of these fine vessels and our working crews are drawn from the finest of these sailors. Our itineraries and ports of call are the same routes sailed by our hosts for thousands of years.
Additional reading on Indonesian, Bugis and Macassar history is strongly recommended.

Baju Bodo (Bugis Indonesia)

baju bodo khas bugis sulawesiBaju Bodo is the traditional clothing of women  Bugis, Sulawesi  Indonesia.  Baju Bodo quadrangular usually short-sleeved, which is half of the elbow sleeves. Baju Bodo is also recognized as one of the oldest in the world of fashion.

Modern Baju Bodo

According to the indigenous Bugis, every color of clothes worn by women Bodo Bugisindicate the age or the dignity of the wearer.

  1. Orange used by the 10-year-old daughter.
  2. Orange and red used by girls aged 10-14 years.
  3. Red is used by women aged 17-25 years.
  4. White is used by the servants and shamans.
  5. Green is used by female royalty.
  6. Purple used by widows.

Clothing is often used for traditional events such as wedding ceremonies. But nowBodo outfit began revitalized through other events such as dance competitions orwelcome guests great.

First, Bodo clothes can be used without the cover of the breast. This had already been noted James Brooke (who later became king appointed the sultan of BruneiSarawak) in 1840 when he visited the palace of Bone.

Baju Bodo 1930's

"Women Bugis, wearing simple clothes. A single sheath covering the waist to toe anda thin shirt loose from muslin (gauze), shows breast and chest shape." How to wearclothes Bodo force in the 1930's.

The Legend of Malin Kundang

Malin Kundang is a tale that originated from the province of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Malin Kundang legend tells about a child who is rebellious to his mother and is therefore condemned to stone. A form of rock on the sweet water beach, Padang, said to be the remains of the ship Malin Kundang.
At one time, there is a family of fishermen in the coastal region of West Sumatra. Because the financial condition of the family concern, the father decided to make a living in the country by wading across a vast ocean. Malin's father never returned to his hometown so that her mother had to replace the position of Malin's father to make a living.

Malin including a bright child but a bit naughty. He often chasing chickens and hit him with a broom. One day, when Malin was chasing chickens, she tripped over a stone and a stone hit her right arm injury. Injury has become a trace in hand and can't be lost. Feeling sorry for his mother who worked hard for a living to raise themselves. Malin decided to go wander in order to become wealthy after returning to my hometown someday.

Initially Ms. Malin Kundang less agree, considering her husband also never returned after going to wander but Malin insisted that eventually he'd be willing to go wander off Malin with boarded a merchant ship. During his stay on the ship, Malin Kundang lot to learn about seamanship on the crew that has been experienced.

Along the way, suddenly climbed Malin Kundang ships were attacked by pirates. All merchandise traders who were on the ship seized by pirates. Even most of the crew and people on the ship were killed by the pirates. Malin Kundang lucky, he was hiding in a small space enclosed by the timber so as not to be killed by the pirates.

Malin Kundang float amid sea, until finally the host ship stranded on a beach. With the remaining force, Malin Kundang walked to the nearest village from the beach. Malin village where villagers stranded is very fertile. With tenacity and perseverance in work, over time Malin had become a very rich. He has many fruit merchant ships with the children of more than 100 people. After becoming rich, Malin Kundang marry a girl to become his wife.

News Malin Kundang who have become wealthy and married, also heard her mother. Her mother felt grateful and very happy his son has been successful. Since then, the mother of Malin every day go to the dock, waiting for her son who may return to his hometown.

After a long marriage, Malin and his wife make the voyage with the crew and a lot of bodyguards. Malin's mother who saw the arrival of the ship to the dock to see there are two people who were standing on the deck of a ship. He believes if that is standing for the child, Malin Kundang and his wife.

Mother Malin was heading toward the ship. Once close enough, his mother saw the scar right hand person, the more convinced his mother that he was approached Malin Kundang. "Malin Kundang, my son, why did you go so long without sending you?", he said, hugging Malin Kundang. But to see an old woman dressed in tattered and dirty hug, Malin Kundang became angry even though he knows that the old lady is her mother, because she was embarrassed when it is known by his wife and also his subordinates.

Get treated like that of her son, Malin Kundang mother very angry. He did not expect him to be rebellious child. Because of mounting anger, the mother of his son menyumpahkan Malin, "Oh God, if he my son, I sumpahi he became a stone. "

Not long after Malin Kundang again go sailing and on the way coming storm destroyed the ship master Kundang. After that Malin Kundang body slowly becomes rigid and in time they finally shaped into a rock. Until now Batu Malin Kundang can still be seen at a beach called sweet water beach, in the southern city of Padang, West Sumatra.

Ternyata Jujur Bikin Sehat

Ternyata Jujur Bikin Sehat

Sebuah penelitian menemukan bahwa berbohong dapat mempengaruhi kondisi kesehatan seseorang. Penelitian ini juga mengungkapkan bahwa kesehatan fisik dan mental orang yang jarang atau lebih sedikit berbohong lebih baik dibandingkan dengan mereka yang lebih sering berbohong.

Gambar Wah! Jujur Bisa Bikin Tambah Sehat sehat jujur efek  Berbohong1Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kejujuran mampu meningkatkan kesehatan seseorang. Dalam penelitian ini responded yang berjumlah 110 orang dan berusia antara 18 hingga 71 tahun menjalani tes kesehatan dan tes kejujuran. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan oleh Anita Kelly, profesor psikologi Universitas Noter Dame, Indiana. Temuannya ini ia publikasikan pada American Psychological Association minggu lalu.
Profesor ini mengatakan saat tingkat kebohongan seseorang tinggi, grafik kesehatan mereka malah menurun. Sebaliknya, saat grafik kebohongan menurun, tingkat kesehatan malah meningkat.
Peneliti kemudian memberikan instruksi pada peserta untuk tidak berbohong. Mereka boleh menolak memberikan jawaban atau diam asal mereka tidak mengatakan hal yang mereka ketahui adalah sebuah kebohongan. Sebagian peserta lain tidak diberi instruksi seperti itu.
Kelompok yang diminta untuk tidak berbohong memiliki empat kali risiko yang lebih rendah terkena masalah kesehatan fisik dan tiga kali lebih rendah terkena masalah kesehatan mental. Pada kelompok lain yang tidak diberi instruksi menahan diri, mereka menemukan adanya keluhan pada kesehatan mental seperti perasaan melankolis dan tegang begitu juga dengan kesehatan fisiknya. Mereka biasanya mengeluh sakit kepala dan tenggorokan.
Profesor Linda Stroh dari Loyola University, Chicago, mengungkapkan bahwa hasil penelitian ini sesuai dengan penelitiannya terdahulu. Ia menemukan bahwa saat orang tidak berbohong, ia tidak memiliki tekanan pada mentalnya.
Dari hasil penelitian ini juga terungkap bahwa penduduk Amerika ternyata berbohong sebanyak 11 kali dalam seminggu. (GT)


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